Glossary

In this section terms and definitions are listed in alphabetical order, as published in documents and public glossaries. The source (abbreviated) is given in the right-hand column.

 

A  B  C  D  E  F-G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W-X-Y-Z



Animal Birth Control (ABC) / Catch Neuter Release (CNR) / Trap Neuter Release (TNR)  CNR comes under many names, including Trap, Neuter and Release (TNR) and Animal Birth Control (ABC). It essentially involves catching stray animals, sterilising them, vaccinating them, and then releasing them back to the place they were initially caught WSPA. An Overview of the Stray Animal Issue. Chap 1

Acceptable risk:

a risk level judged by each OIE Member to be compatible with the protection of animal and public health within its territory.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal:

a mammal, bird or bee

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal handler:

a person with a knowledge of the behaviour and needs of animals who, with appropriate experience and a professional and positive response to an animal’s needs, can achieve effective management and good welfare. Competence should be gained through formal training and/or practical experience.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal health status:

the status of a country or a zone with respect to an animal disease, according to the criteria listed in the relevant chapter of the Terrestrial Code dealing with the disease.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal identification:

the combination of the identification and registration of an animal individually, with a unique identifier, or collectively by its epidemiological unit or group, with a unique group identifier.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal identification system:

the inclusion and linking of components such as identification of establishments/owners, the person(s) responsible for the animal(s), movements and other records with animal identification.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal traceability:

the ability to follow an animal or group of animals during all stages of its life.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Animal welfare:

how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Antimicrobial agent:

a naturally occurring, semi-synthetic or synthetic substance that exhibits antimicrobial activity (kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms). Anthelmintics and substances classed as disinfectants or antiseptics are excluded from this definition.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Apiary:

a beehive or group of beehives whose management allows them to be considered as a single epidemiological unit.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Appropriate level of protection:

the level of protection deemed appropriate by the country establishing a sanitary measure to protect human or animal life or health within its territory.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Approved:

means officially approved, accredited or registered by the Veterinary Authority.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Artificial insemination centre:

means a facility approved by the Veterinary Authority and which meets the conditions set out in the Terrestrial Code for the collection, processing and/or storage of semen.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Biosecurity plan:

a plan that identifies potential pathways for the introduction and spread of disease in a zone or compartment, and describes the measures which are being or will be applied to mitigate the disease risks, if applicable, in accordance with the recommendations in the Terrestrial Code.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

BIP (Border inspection post):   

 

a facility approved for the carrying out of veterinary checks on live animals and products of animal origin arriving from third countries for import into the EU.

Food and Veterinary Office – Annual Report 2008

Border post:

any airport, or any port, railway station or road check-point open to international trade of commodities, where import veterinary inspections can be performed.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Breeding Human controlled reproduction of animals by keeping together pubescent animals of different sex, directed mating or the adduction of a specific animal to be covered or through use of other techniques of reproduction”.  Austrian Animal Welfare Act (TSchG) §4 Satz 12

 

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Carrying capacity

 

the upper limit of the dog population density that could be supported by the habitat based on the availability of resources (food, water, shelter), and human acceptance.

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

Case:

an individual animal infected by a pathogenic agent, with or without clinical signs.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Cat (Felis catus), also called house cat,  domesticated member of the family Felidae, order Carnivora, and the smallest member of that family. Like all felids, domestic cats are characterized by supple, low-slung bodies, finely molded heads, long tails that aid in balance, and specialized teeth and claws that adapt them admirably to a life of active hunting. Domestic cats possess other features of their wild relatives in being basically carnivorous, remarkably agile and powerful, and finely coordinated in movement”.  Britannica Encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster. 2014

Catch Neuter Release (CNR) / Trap Neuter Release (TNR) / Animal Birth Control (ABC)

CNR comes under many names, including Trap, Neuter and Release (TNR) and Animal Birth Control (ABC). It essentially involves catching stray animals, sterilising them, vaccinating them, and then releasing them back to the place they were initially caught WSPA. An Overview of the Stray Animal Issue. Chap 1

Community dog               

situations where more than one individual claims ownership of an animal.

Human Dog Population Management Guidance

Compartment:

an animal subpopulation contained in one or more establishments under a common biosecurity management system with a distinct health status with respect to a specific disease or specific diseases for which required surveillance, control and biosecurity measures have been applied for the purpose of international trade.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Competent Authority:

the Veterinary Authority or other Governmental Authority of an OIE Member having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the whole territory.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

A domestic government body made responsible under that country’s national law for the control or regulation of a particular area of legislation.

Food and Veterinary Office – Annual Report 2008

Container:

a non-self-propelled receptacle or other rigid structure for holding animals during a journey by one or several means of transport.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Containment zone:

a defined zone around and including suspected or infected establishments, taking into account the epidemiological factors and results of investigations, where control measures to prevent the spread of the infection are applied.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Culling

Traditionally, “culling” does not mean killing, but came from the latin verb “to collect” and means removing some animals from a group regarding specific criteria to reinforce certain desirable characteristics or to remove certain undesirable characteristics from the group. But in farms, it appears that culling usually implies the killing of the removed animals. 

FOUR PAWS, European Policy Office. Euthanasia: Clarification, Explanation, Interpretation. 2014

 

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Death:

the irreversible loss of brain activity demonstrable by the loss of brain stem reflexes.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Dermatophytose

Dermatophytoses are superficial mycoses that may be acquired from infected animals and affect the skin, hair and nails of humans, causing itching, redness, scaling and hair loss. Another mycotic infection that can be zoonotic is sporotrichosis

WHO

Disease:

means the clinical and/or pathological manifestation of infection.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Disinfection:

the application, after thorough cleansing, of procedures intended to destroy the infectious or parasitic agents of animal diseases, including zoonoses; this applies to premises, vehicles and different objects which may have been directly or indirectly contaminated.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Dog

“(Canis lupus familiaris), domestic mammal of the family Canidae (order Carnivora). It is a subspecies of the gray wolf (C. lupus) and is related to foxes and jackals. The dog is one of the two most ubiquitous and popular domestic animals in the world (the cat is the other). For more than 12,000 years it has lived with humans as a hunting companion, protector, object of scorn or adoration, and friend“. 

Britannica Encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster. 2014

Dog population control programme: 

 

a programme with the aim of reducing a stray dog population to a particular level and/or maintaining it at that level and/or managing it in order to meet a predetermined objective.

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

 

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Ear cropping Ear cropping is a surgical procedure that involves precise cutting and shaping of the ear pinna (the floppy part of the ears) of a dog in order to make the ears stand erect”.   www.dogs.about.com

Early detection system

a system for the timely detection and identification of an incursion or emergence of diseases/infections in a country, zone or compartment. An early detection system should be under the control of the Veterinary Services and should include the following characteristics:

representative coverage of target animal populations by field services;

ability to undertake effective disease investigation and reporting;

access to laboratories capable of diagnosing and differentiating relevant diseases;

a training programme for veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals and others involved in handling animals for detecting and reporting unusual animal health incidents;

the legal obligation of private veterinarians to report to the Veterinary Authority;

a national chain command.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Emerging disease:

a new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogenic agent, a known infection spreading to a new geographic area or population, or a previously unrecognized pathogenic agent or disease diagnosed for the first time and which has a significant impact on animal or public health.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Enforcement

the act of compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation. 

Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary. 2014

Epidemiological unit:

a group of animals with a defined epidemiological relationship that share approximately the same likelihood of exposure to a pathogen. This may be because they share a common environment (e.g. animals in a pen), or because of common management practices. Usually, this is a herd or a flock. However, an epidemiological unit may also refer to groups such as animals belonging to residents of a village, or animals sharing a communal animal handling facility. The epidemiological relationship may differ from disease to disease, or even strain to strain of the pathogen.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Equivalence of sanitary measures

the state wherein the sanitary measure(s) proposed by the exporting country as an alternative to those of the importing country, achieve(s) the same level of protection.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Euthanasia:

the act of inducing death in a humane manner

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

“Euthanasia of animals is based on a veterinary indication, and therefore being a veterinary act, is intended to end the suffering of animals (e.g. seriously ill, injured, or aggressive dogs) and bringing about the animal’s death in the most humane way, without pain and performed by a veterinarian”. 

Declaration of the First Conference on Animal Welfare in the Baltic Region. Responsible Ownership. 6 May 2014

Eradication:

the elimination of a pathogenic agent from a country or zone.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Establishment:

the premises in which animals are kept.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Exagerating conformation To breed in a way to emphasise specific physical features of a cat or a dog in order to fit with the breed standards, as defined by canine and feline federations. This includes short, flat faces, bulging or sunken eyes and wrinkled skin”  Eurogroup for Animals. Selective Breeding
Exotic Pet Exotic pets are strictly defined as being one of the non domestic animals. All others are therefore, strictly speaking, exotic. However in practice no-one would still consider the rabbit or guinea pig kept as a pet as an exotic pet. For practical purposes we consider exotic pets to include all the non domestic and small furry animals, i.e. rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, plus reptiles, amphibians, birds, invertebrates etc.  British Veterinary Zoological Society. FAQs on Exotic Animalswww.bvzs.org

Exporting country:

a country from which commodities are sent to another country.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Feral Dog

domestic dog that has reverted to the wild state and is no longer directly dependent upon humans for successful reproduction.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Flea A small wingless jumping insect that feeds on the blood of mammals and birds. It sometimes transmits diseases through its bite, including plague and myxomatosis”.  Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary. 2014

Flock:

a number of animals of one kind kept together under human control or a congregation of gregarious wild animals. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, a flock is usually regarded as an epidemiological unit.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Free compartment:

a compartment in which the absence of the animal pathogen causing the disease under consideration has been demonstrated by all requirements specified in the Terrestrial Code for free status being met.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Free zone:

a zone in which the absence of the disease under consideration has been demonstrated by the requirements specified in the Terrestrial Code for free status being met. Within the zone and at its borders, appropriate official veterinary control is effectively applied for animals and animal products, and their transportation.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

FVO (Food and Veterinary office)

The mission of the Food and Veterinary Office is, through its audits, inspections and related activities, to check on compliance with the requirements of EU food safety and quality, animal health and welfare and plant health legislation within the European Union and on compliance with EU import requirements in third countries exporting to the EU, contribute to the development of European Community policy in the food safety, animal health and welfare and plant health sectors, contribute to the development and implementation of effective control systems in the food safety, animal health and welfare and plant health sectors, and to inform stakeholders of the outcome of its audits and inspections”. 

Official website of the European Union. www.europa.eu

 

 

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Hazard:

a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or a condition of, an animal or animal product with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Hazard identification:

the process of identifying the pathogenic agents which could potentially be introduced in the commodity considered for importation.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Herd:

a number of animals of one kind kept together under human control or a congregation of gregarious wild animals. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, a herd is usually regarded as an epidemiological unit.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Hazard:

a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or a condition of, an animal or animal product with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Hazard identification:

the process of identifying the pathogenic agents which could potentially be introduced in the commodity considered for importation.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Illegal imports:

The introduction onto the territory of the Community of products of animal origin or live animals that, either accidentally or intentionally, have not been subject to, and cleared following, the veterinary checks foreseen in Community legislation.

Food and Veterinary Office – Annual Report 2008

Immunisation (oral) of carnivores

A trend toward a decline in the number of cases in animals has been reported in many European countries. Some of these countries are now free of rabies such as Belgium, France, Luxembourg and Switzerland. This improvement followed the massive use of the oral immunization technique for foxes and the dispersal over wide areas since 1989 (recent European wildlife rabies cases). Remarkable decreases have also been noted in Canada and Texas (USA), where oral vaccination projects targeting coyotes and foxes, respectively, have been conducted. WHO also organized or sponsored a number of consultations and symposia on wildlife rabies control

World Health Organisation (WHO)

Implementation:

 the process of putting a decision or plan into effect; execution”. 

Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary. 2014

Importing country:

a country that is the final destination to which commodities are sent.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Incidence:

the number of new cases or outbreaks of a disease that occur in a population at risk in a particular geographical area within a defined time interval.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Incubation period:

the longest period which elapses between the introduction of the pathogen into the animal and the occurrence of the first clinical signs of the disease.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Infected zone:

a zone in which the absence of the disease under consideration has not been demonstrated by the requirements specified in the Terrestrial Code being met.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Infection:

the entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of humans or animals.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Infective period:

the longest period during which an affected animal can be a source of infection.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Infringement proceedings:

 

Treaty infringement proceedings form a procedure for establishing whether a Member State has failed to fulfil an obligation imposed on it by Community law. The procedure starts with a pre-litigation phase, involving contacts between the Commission and the Member State, and may conclude with a legal action before the European Court of Justice.

Food and Veterinary Office – Annual Report 2008

International veterinary certificate:

a certificate, issued in conformity with the provisions of Chapter 5.2. Certification Procedures[1]), describing the animal health and/or public health requirements which are fulfilled by the exported commodities.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Journey:

An animal transport journey commences when the first animal is loaded onto a vehicle/vessel or into a container and ends when the last animal is unloaded, and includes any stationary resting/holding periods. The same animals do not commence a new journey until after a suitable period for rest and recuperation, with adequate feed and water.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Killing: 

any procedure which causes the death of an animal.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Kitten: Neonate cat, by six months (<6 months) AAFP–AAHA. Feline Life Stage Guidelines

 

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Laboratory:

a properly equipped institution staffed by technically competent personnel under the control of a specialist in veterinary diagnostic methods, who is responsible for the validity of the results. The Veterinary Authority approves and monitors such laboratories with regard to the diagnostic tests required for international trade.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Lairage:

pens, yards and other holding areas used for accommodating animals in order to give them necessary attention (such as water, feed, rest) before they are moved on or used for specific purposes including slaughter.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Listed diseases:

the list of transmissible disease agreed by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates and set out in Chapter 1.2. of the Terrestrial Code.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Litter: A number of young animals born to an animal at one time”  Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary. 2014

Loading/unloading:

the procedure of moving animals onto a vehicle/vessel or into a container for transport purposes, while unloading means the procedure of moving animals off a vehicle/vessel or out of a container.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Market:

a place where animals are assembled for the purpose of trade or sale.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Monitoring:

the intermittent performance and analysis of routine measurements and observations, aimed at detecting changes in the environment or health status of a population.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Notifiable disease:

a disease listed by the Veterinary Authority, and that, as soon as detected or suspected, must be brought to the attention of this Authority, in accordance with national regulations.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Notification:

the procedure by which:

the Veterinary Authority informs the Central Bureau,

the Central Bureau informs Veterinary Authority, of the occurrence of an outbreak of disease or infection, according to the provisions of Chapter 1.1. Notification of Diseases and Epidemiological Information[2].

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Official control programme:

a programme which is approved, and managed or supervised by the Veterinary Authority of a country for the purpose of controlling a vector, pathogen or disease by specific measures applied throughout that country, or within a zone or compartment of that country.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Official Veterinarian:

a veterinarian authorised by the Veterinary Authority of the country to perform certain designated official tasks associated with animal health and/or public health and inspections of commodities and, when appropriate, to certify in conformity with the provisions of Chapters 5.1. and 5.2. of the Terrestrial Code[3].

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Official veterinary control:

the operations whereby the Veterinary Services, knowing the location of the animals and after taking appropriate actions to identify their owner or responsible keeper, are able to apply appropriate animal health measures, as required. This does not exclude other responsibilities of the Veterinary Services e.g. food safety.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Outbreak:

the occurrence of one or more cases in an epidemiological unit.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Owned Dog

a dog with a person that claims responsibility

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

an owned dog is one that someone states is their property or claims some right over. This does not necessarily mean it is a responsibly owned dog, as an ownership can range from:

·         ‘loose’ ownership in the form of irregular feeding of a dog that roams freely in the streets;

·         to a dog kept as part of a commercial breeding facility;

·         to a well cared for, legally registered and confined pet.

 

What constitutes dog ownership is highly variable and fits along a spectrum of confinement, provision of resources such as food and shelter and the significance of companionship.

Human Dog Population Management Guidance

 

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Parasites

Cysticercosis/Taeniasis is caused by a parasite which infects swine and can cause seizures, headache and many other symptoms in humans. In Latin America for example, 100 out of 100 000 inhabitants suffer from this disease (estimation). Other parasitic zoonoses are trematodosis, echinococcosis/hydatidosis, toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis.

WHO

Pathological material:

samples obtained from live or dead animals, containing or suspected of containing infectious or parasitic agents, to be sent to a laboratory.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Pedigree The record of descent of an animal, showing it to be pure-bred Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary. 2014

Person:

this can include more than one individual, and could comprise family/household members or an organisation.

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

Pet  A household pet is an animal kept or intended for keeping with the objective of providing personal entertainment or company for humans”. This definition also applies to animals which are trained to perform special functions or are used (blind, police, rescue services…)” . Estonian Animal Protection Act. §2 (3). 13.12.2000

Place of shipment:

the place where the commodities are loaded into the vehicle or handed to the agency that will transport them to another country.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Population:

a group of units sharing a common defined characteristic

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Post-journey period:

the period between unloading and either recovery from the effects of the journey or slaughter (if this occurs before recovery).

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Pre-journey period:

the period during which animals are identified, and often assembled for the purpose of loading them.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Prevalence:

the total number of cases or outbreaks of a disease that are present in a population at risk, in a particular geographical area, at one specified time or during a given period.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Puppy

Neonate until reproductive maturity

AAHA. Canine Life Stage Guidelines
Puppy farm / mill The terms refer to the “industrial” way to produce puppies, as often practiced in eastern European countries. Bitches are frequently reduced to a breeding machine and have more than four litters a year. Once born, puppies are very quickly removed from their mothers, and are kept in dark dirty accommodations with no proper food or water  FOUR PAWS, European Policy Office

 

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Qualitative risk assessment:

an assessment where the outputs on the likelihood of the outcome or the magnitude of the consequences are expressed in qualitative terms such as ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’ or ‘negligible’.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Quality:

defined by International Standard ISO 8402 as ‘the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs’.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Quantitative risk assessment:

means an assessment where the outputs of the risk assessment are expressed numerically.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Quarantine station:

a premises under the control of the Veterinary Authority where animals are maintained in isolation with no direct or indirect contact with other animals, to prevent the transmission of specified pathogen(s) while the animals are undergoing observation for a specified length of time and, if appropriate, testing and treatment.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Rabies

Rabies is a vaccine-preventable disease, and it is still a significant public health problem in many countries of Asia and Africa, even though safe, effective vaccines for both human and veterinary use exist. Out of 55 000 deaths from rabies reported annually most of the victims are children under 15 years of age. Transmission of the disease occurs via bites of rabid dogs. Most of the children who die from rabies were not treated or did not receive adequate post-exposure treatment. Although modern cell culture vaccines have been recognized, some Asian countries still use nervous tissue vaccines, which are less effective, require repeated visits to the hospital and often have severe side-effects. Reason for such an approach is global shortage of modern cell culture vaccine and its high price.

World Health Organisation (WHO)

Rabies is a zoonotic disease, which is caused by a lyssavirus. Transmission of the virus is achieved by entering the body through wounds (e.g. scratches) or by direct contact with mucosal surfaces from an infected animal (e.g. bites), it cannot cross intact skin. There are two clinical manifestations of rabies – furious and paralytic. Furious rabies is most common form of human rabies”.  World Health Organisation. Rabies: A neglected zoonotic disease. 2014

Rabnet:

Online rabies database

World Health Organisation (WHO)

Rapid Alert System for Feed and Food (RASFF):

a network of national authorities, managed by the Commission, that exchanges information on the presence of potential health risks to consumers presented by a food product.

Food and Veterinary Office – Annual Report 2008

Registration:

the action by which information on animals (such as identification, animal health, movement, certification, epidemiology, establishments) is collected, recorded, securely stored and made appropriately accessible and able to be utilised by the Competent Authority.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Residue

That portion of the administered dose of a veterinary medicine or other substance present in the tissues, body fluids, products or excreta of an animal arising from treatment of the animal. The total residue includes the parent compound plus any metabolites.

Food and Veterinary Office – Annual Report 2008

Responsible dog ownership:

 

a duty of care based on the principle that animals are sentient beings having intrinsic value, are dependent on humans for their health and welfare and are part of the ecosystem. RPO aims to maintain a good level of animal health and welfare, to maximize physical and psychological benefits to humans and to minimise the potential risk that pets may pose to the public, other animals, or the environment. This duty starts with responsible acquisition and continues with providing appropriate care and protection for pets and their offspring. (Second Strategy Report – 2nd Cycle). CALLISTO Project

the situation whereby a person (as defined above) accepts and commits to perform various duties according to the legislation in place and focused on the satisfaction of the behavioural, environmental and physical needs of a dog and to the prevention of risks (aggression, disease transmission or injuries) that the dog may pose to the community, other animals or the environment.

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

a principle of animal welfare that owners have a duty to provide sufficient and appropriate care for all their animals and their offspring. This ‘duty of care’ requires owners to provide the resources (e.g. food, water, health care and social interaction) necessary for an individual dog to maintain an acceptable level of health and well-being in its environment – the Five Freedoms serve as a useful guide. Owners also have a duty to minimise the potential risk their dog may pose to the public or other animals. In some countries this is a legal requirement.

Human Dog Population Management Guidance

Resting point:

a place where the journey is interrupted to rest, feed or water the animals; the animals may remain in the vehicle/vessel or container, or be unloaded for these purposes.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Restraint:

the application to an animal of any procedure designed to restrict its movements.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Risk:

the likelihood of the occurrence and the likely magnitude of the biological and economic consequences of an adverse event or effect to animal or human health.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Risk analysis:

the process composed of hazard identification, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Risk assessment:

the evaluation of the likelihood and the biological and economic consequences of entry, establishment and spread of a hazard within the territory of an importing country.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Risk communication:

the interactive transmission and exchange of information and opinions throughout the risk analysis process concerning risk, risk-related factors and risk perceptions among risk assessors, risk managers, risk communicators, the general public and other interested parties.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Risk management:

the process of identifying, selecting and implementing measures that can be applied to reduce the level of risk.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Roaming Dog

a dog that is not currently under direct control or is not currently restricted by a physical barrier. This term is often used inter-changeably with ‘free-roaming’, ‘free-ranging’ or ‘stray’ dog. It encompasses both owned and unowned roaming dogs and does not distinguish whether the dog has an ‘owner’ or ‘guardian’. In many countries the majority of dogs that would be defined as roaming do have an owner but are allowed to roam on public property for all or part of the day.

Human Dog Population Management Guidance

 

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Sanitary measure:

a measure, such as those described in various chapters of the Terrestrial Code, destined to protect animal or human health or life within the territory of the OIE Member from risks arising from the entry, establishment and/or spread of a hazard.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Selective breeding To breed in a way to emphasise specific physical features of a cat or a dog in order to fit with the breed standards, as defined by canine and feline federations. This includes short, flat faces, bulging or sunken eyes and wrinkled skin Eurogroup for Animals. Selective Breeding
Sentient being

A sentient being is one that has some ability to evaluate the actions of others in relation to itself and third parties, to remember some of its own actions and their consequences, to assess risk, to have some feelings, and to have some degree of awareness.” 

D.M. Broom. Cognitive ability and sentience. 2007, p100.

Space allowance:

the measure of the floor area and height allocated per individual or body weight of animals.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Specific surveillance:

the surveillance targeted to a specific disease or infection.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Stray Dog

any dog not under direct control by a person or not prevented from roaming.

 

Types of stray dog:

free-roaming owned dog not under direct control or restriction at a particular time;

free-roaming dog with no owner;

feral dog: domestic dog that has reverted to the wild state and is no longer directly dependent upon humans for successful reproduction.

OIE, Guidelines on stray dog population

Stocking density:

the number or body weight of animals per unit area on a vehicle/vessel or container.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Stunning:

any mechanical, electrical, chemical or other procedure which causes immediate loss of consciousness; when used before slaughter, the loss of consciousness lasts until death from the slaughter process; in the absence of slaughter, the procedure would allow the animal to recover consciousness.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Subpopulation:

a distinct part of a population identifiable according to specific common animal health characteristics.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Surveillance:

the systematic ongoing collection, collation, and analysis of information related to animal health and the timely dissemination of information to those who need to know so that action can be taken.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Terrestrial Code:

the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code[4].

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Terrestrial Manual:

the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals[5].

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Trap Neuter Release (TNR) / Animal Birth Control (ABC)/ Catch Neuter Release (CNR) 

CNR comes under many names, including Trap, Neuter and Release (TNR) and Animal Birth Control (ABC). It essentially involves catching stray animals, sterilising them, vaccinating them, and then releasing them back to the place they were initially caught WSPA. An Overview of the Stray Animal Issue. Chap 1

Transit country:

a country through which commodities destined for an importing country are transported or in which a stopover is made at a border post.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Transparency:

the comprehensive documentation of all data, information, assumptions, methods, results, discussion and conclusions used in the risk analysis. Conclusions should be supported by an objective and logical discussion and the document should be fully referenced.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Transport:

the procedures associated with the carrying of animals for commercial purposes from one location to another by any means.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Transporter:

the person licensed by the Competent Authority to transport animals

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Travel:

the movement of a vehicle/vessel or container carrying animals from one location to another.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Uncertainty:

the lack of precise knowledge of the input values which is due to measurement error or to lack of knowledge of the steps required, and the pathways from hazard to risk, when building the scenario being assessed.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Unit:

an individually identifiable element used to describe, for example, the members of a population or the elements selected when sampling; examples of units include individual animals, herds, flocks and apiaries.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Vaccination:

the successful immunisation of susceptible animals through the administration, according to the manufacturer's instructions and the Terrestrial Manual, where relevant, of a vaccine comprising antigens appropriate to the disease to be controlled.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Variability:

a real-world complexity in which the value of an input is not the same for each case due to natural diversity in a given population.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Vector:

an insect or any living carrier that transports an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible individual or its food or immediate surroundings. The organism may or may not pass through a development cycle within the vector.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Vehicle/vessel:

any means of conveyance including train, truck, aircraft or ship that is used for carrying animal(s).

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Veterinarian:

a person registered or licensed by the relevant veterinary statutory body of a country to practice veterinary medicine/science in that country.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Veterinary Authority:

the Governmental Authority of an OIE Member, comprising veterinarians, other professionals and para-professionals, having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the whole territory.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Veterinary disaster triage In a disaster triage must be conducted with the purpose of doing the greatest good for the largest number of animals. Rapid examination followed by classification of patients according to the urgency of their treatment needs is critical. Triage calls for an organized approach to multiple patients and ensures that the most critical animals are identified and normalized first.  Wayne E. Wingfield MS, DVM, Jerry J. Upp, DVM. Veterinary Disaster Triage: Making the Tough Decisions

Veterinary para-professional:

a person who, for the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, is authorised by the veterinary statutory body to carry out certain designated tasks (dependent upon the category of veterinary para-professional) in a territory, and delegated to them under the responsibility and direction of a veterinarian. The tasks for each category of veterinary para-professional should be defined by the veterinary statutory body depending on qualifications and training, and according to need.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Veterinary Services:

the governmental and non-governmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the territory. The Veterinary Services are under the overall control and direction of the Veterinary Authority. Private sector organisations, veterinarians or veterinary paraprofessionals are normally accredited or approved to deliver functions by the Veterinary Authority.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Veterinary statutory body:

an autonomous authority regulating veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

 

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Wild Animal

A wild animal should be considered as such when the animal is able to express natural behavior when living in the wildlife and able to subsist on its own. This definition should exclude of its scope animals that were not wild by origin, but have been released in the wild by humans (abandoned animals and their offspring)”.

 European Enforcement Network of animal welfare lawyers and commissioners. First Working Group: Legal certainty by coherent and precise definition. 2013

Zone/region:

a clearly defined part of a territory containing an animal subpopulation with a distinct health status with respect to a specific disease for which required surveillance, control and biosecurity measures have been applied for the purpose of international trade.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

Zoonosis / Zoonotic disease

any disease or infection which is naturally transmissible from animals to humans.

OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

disease that can be transmitted from non-human animals to humans.

Human Dog Population Management Guidance

Any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa is classified as a zoonosis

PAHO "Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals"


[1] OIE, Terestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 5.2. Certification Procedures

[2] OIE, Terestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter Notification of Diseases and Epidemiological Information

[3] OIE, Terestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 5.2. Certification Procedures

[4] OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

[5] OIE, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals

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